If you decide that you don’t want to spend the money for a pro-quality complete, then this is your best bet for a completely blank skateboard.  You’re just not going to find anything else with similar quality anywhere near this price range.  This blank skateboard is an even 8″ with 9 layers of plywood in the deck.  This makes it ideal for any beginner especially adults or children with large feet.  A great option for someone on a budget or if you want to try a no-frills quality skateboard setup, before deciding if you want to invest further on a pro-style skateboard.
The National Skate Co‘s approach to marketing retained this air of intrigue with the release of their first video, ‘The National Skateboard Co. Promo‘ in 2013 with minimal promotion beforehand. This promo video featured lo-fi VX2000 footage of original team members Thomas Harrison, Danijel Stankovic, David Mackey, Joshua Young, Vaughan Jones and Neil Smith interspersed with found footage and black and white news reel clips.
Many cities also began implementing recreation plans and statutes during this time period, as part of their vision for local parks and communities to make public lands more available, in particular, for skateboarding, inviting skateboarders to come in off of the city streets and into organized skateboarding activity areas. By 2006 there were over 2,400 skateparks worldwide and the design of skateparks themselves had made a transition, as skaters turned designers.[43][60][61][62][63] Many new places to skateboard designed specifically for street skaters, such as the "Safe Spot Skate Spot" program, first initiated by professional skateboarder Rob Dyrdek throughout many cities, allowed for the creation of smaller alternative safe skate plazas to be built at a lower cost.[64] One of the largest locations ever built to skateboard in the world, SMP Skatepark in China, at 12,000 square meters in size, was built complete with a 5,000-seat stadium.[65]
Whilst early skateboarders generally rode barefoot, preferring direct foot-to-board contact, and some skaters continue to do so, one of the early leading trends associated with the sub-culture of skateboarding itself, was the sticky-soled slip-on skate shoe, most popularized by Sean Penn's skateboarding character from the film Fast Times at Ridgemont High.[8] Because early skateboarders were actually surfers trying to emulate the sport of surfing, at the time when skateboards first came out on the market, many skateboarded barefoot. But skaters often lacked traction, which led to foot injuries.[26] This necessitated the need for a shoe that was specifically designed and marketed for skateboarding, such as the Randy "720", manufactured by the Randolph Rubber Company, and Vans sneakers, which eventually became cultural iconic signifiers for skateboarders during the 1970s and '80s as skateboarding became more widespread.[8][76][77][78][79][80]
The Landwalker 22″ Complete Skateboard has a sturdy 7 layer Canadian maple deck. It’s best for downhill, U table and slider because of its enormous stability. This board is best for teens and adults. It comes with Abec 7″ Bearings, PU wheels, Black Grip Tape, and hardware. It measures 79 x 20 x 10 cm. This board is an awesome gift for Christmas or Halloween.

(2) Goldchain, Michelle (July 31, 2018). "Why is Pennsylvania Avenue's Freedom Plaza such a failure?". Greater Greater Washington. Retrieved October 30, 2018. One group of people do use Freedom Plaza regularly: skateboarders. The open hardscape and railings of Freedom Plaza make an excellent and popular skate park, though skating there is not actually allowed and Park Police regularly chase skaters from the park.
The problem with wheel bite is that it tends to stop the motion of the wheels. This can result not only in a bad wipeout for the rider but also damage to the wheels. With the help of the riser pads, it is easier for you to preserve the deck of your skateboard since these pads can reduce the tendency of having stress cracks on where the trucks and deck meet.
Velocity Boards Retro Skateboards is a complete 22″ Banana Skateboard.  It includes 6″ Lightweight Aluminum Trucks, High-Speed ABEC-7 Bearings, High-Quality Wheels & Bushings and Hardware.  It has a Unique Textured Waffle Pattern on Deck and is designed for Maximum Grip.  The Deck measures about 22 x 6 x 4″.  It has a 6″ Truck Axle and a 3″ Truck Hanger.  It has a maximum weight capacity of  176 lbs. (80 kgs.).  It is great for all skaters who are 6 years old and above.  It has an Amazon rating of 4.7.
In the skateboarding world, there is considerable shuffling of the famous top brands as not many of them manage to stay in the spotlight for long. This continuous reshuffling paves way for new skateboard brands to come into the spotlight. However, it is important to note that no two brands are the same and comparing them is difficult but the following list has been created by extensive research of the saturated skateboard market and features the best skateboard brands out there that you must give a try. 
Ever notice small vertical or horizontal cracks through your grip tape or by the hardware of your trucks?  These are called stress or pressure cracks and are basically mini fractures of your skateboard deck that typically are seen in the areas of the deck that withstand the greatest impact (around the trucks).  A few pressure cracks is generally no big deal and you won’t even notice them while skating, but they can compound and grow larger and make your deck lose “pop” and increase the chance of snapping.  To avoid pressure cracks, you cant use riser pads underneath your trucks to reduce the level of impact your deck takes.  You should also avoid over tightening your hardware and storing your skateboard in a very humid place as both of these practices can also make your board weaker and more susceptible to pressure cracks.
Unlike California, where the sun always shines and the pavement has never seen snow and salt, New York only has a handful of skate brands. Funny when you think about the rich history skateboarding has in the City. 5Boro is one of the brands that has been keeping the tradition alive for more than a decade, and next time you see founder Steve Rodriguez out skating, thank him for making so much happen for skaters in NYC.
Silver has edged it's way onto the scene offering nice, quality skateboard trucks, with plenty of little extras to make their trucks stand out from the rest. With things like inverted kingpins and axle caps, Silver trucks are pushing their motto, "Strength with Style." Silver trucks do look nice! Silver also sports a great team, with guys like Sheckler, Dyrdek, Rodriquez and more.
Efforts have been taken to improve recognition of the cultural heritage as well as the positive effects of encouraging skateboarding within designated spaces. In 2015, the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C., hosted an event at which skateboarders accompanied by music did tricks on a ramp constructed for a festival of American culture.[68] The event was the climax of a ten-day project that transformed a federal institution formerly off-limits to the skateboarding community into a platform for that community to show its relevance through shared cultural action in a cultural common space.[69]
If what you want is the classic skate park skateboard that you see teens riding around all day, the MINORITY is the board for you. This is an extremely sturdy and durable board that can hold up to 220 pounds, and is made for trick riding especially. The strong trucks, medium concave shape, and high-rebound bushing all make this a fantastic board for ramps, pools, and street riding.

The Quest can be considered as the best improving Longboard brand because in 2014 it was in the 4th position, whereas in 2018 it is in 2nd place. This is a good improvement for a Longboard brand in these competitive days! Even though it is now in 2nd place, it has a little gap with Sector 9. They mainly focused on the customer’s needs by collecting client opinions. They have been improving the size, quality, performance, speed, design, and color of their longboards.


Since Fine Artists Vol 1, Element have released numerous videos including Element – Third Eye View (1998), Element – Rise Up (2005) which focused on the brand’s European team, and more recently, the short video Element – Rise and Shine (2011) focusing on Element team rider Nyjah Huston. Element’s video output is unparalleled with releases from all over the globe – most of which can be found via the link above..
In this modern era, manufacturers are incorporating hi-tech processes and top-shelf materials into the construction of the skateboard. Companies such as Almost have several versions of hi-tech decks such as the Impact, Double Impact, and Uber Light Series. Element makes Highlight decks with inlayed fiberglass beams, and Foundation has its signature Fiberprime decks. Other manufactures such as Flip, Habitat, Plan B, Skate Mental, and Zero offer boards with high-end P2 Construction. Hi-tech decks differ from traditional 7-ply Maple in that they are inlayed with Carbon Fiber, Fiberglass, Poly Ply, or Kevlar to produce a stronger skateboard with more pop. For more options, head over to our stellar selection of Hi-Tech Decks! Although hi-tech decks have made a strong presence within the market, standard 7-ply Maple remain the gold standard. This is due to the solid feeling and pop afforded through layering 7 Maple wood veneers together. The large majority of skateboard decks offered are constructed of 7-ply Maple. Most board manufacturers offer both high-tech decks and standard 7-ply Maple. No matter what you desire, CCS offers a complete selection in multiple sizes, shapes, and construction types!
Following Jason Dill and AVE leaving long time sponsors Alien Workshop back in 2013, Dill’s 13-year-old Fucking Awesome brand, which was formerly a clothing brand, became a board brand and began to add riders such as Dylan Rieder (RIP), Gino Iannucci, Jason Dill, Kevin Bradley, Nakel Smith, Sean Pablo, Sage Elsesser, Tyshawn Jones and Aiden Mackey.
Thunder trucks are solid, with some great innovations. Thunder's light truck range claims ​to be the lightest available, with the quickest turning. Thunder's team is also pretty impressive, with Thomas, Appleyard, Marks, Steamer, Ellington. The list is actually pretty huge. If having a lot of pros ride the same trucks as you is important (which isn't a bad idea - these people are skating in competitions, and want the best!), then take a look at Thunder.

Cheap Hoverboard Drones Drones with Camera Electric Scooter Electric Skateboard Freeboard Gifts for Skateboarders GoPro Alternative Cameras Headphones Hoverboard Laws How to Ride a Snakeboard Longboard Longboards Mini Segway Mopeds Mopeds for Sale Quadcopters Quadcopters with Camera Ripstick Rollerblades Roller Skates Self Balancing Board Self Balancing Scooter Self Balancing Unicycle Skate 3 Skateboard Skateboard Backpacks skateboard d Skateboard Decks Skateboard Girls Skateboarding Tricks Skateboard Quotes Skateboard Rack Skateboards Skateboard Trucks Skatecycles Skate Game Skate Logos Skate Shoes Ski Jackets Smart Electric Scooter Snakeboard Unicycle Scooter Vans Waveboards


Minority Maple Skateboard is an aesthetically engineered, quality starter skateboard. It is solid to the core. It is made with 7-ply hard rock maple cold pressed into 32×8-inch deck. It is built to endure weight up to 220 lbs. Its mediate concave design makes it perfect for performing tricks with ease and dexterity. Its 5-inch long trucks made with genuine aluminum alloy makes it an epitome of strength and endurance. Its carbon steel kingpin and 78A high rebound PU bushing adds to its strength. ABEC-9 precision bearings are manufactured using chrome steel with 52mm 102A PU wheels making the Minority Maple Skateboard a speedster.
It’s not just standard deck sizes that are available for creating or replacing your board. You can just as easily get a great longboard deck to work on in your basement or garage. One of the best and best-reviewed options out there is the Loaded Boards Poke Longboard Skateboard Deck. This standard-design longboard deck has it all to help you make the ideal board. 
Skateboards just aren’t what they used to be, and that doesn’t make Jim Greco, Baker and Deathwish OG, happy whatsoever. Greco started the company last year as an effort to bring back skateboard manufacturing to the USA from overseas in China, using the traditional silk screen ink transfer and hand shaping methods from the early days of skateboarding.
Similar to sandpaper, grip tape, or “grip” as it’s commonly referred to, is applied to the top of your deck for traction. Grip gives you the friction you need to perform tricks such as ollies and kickflips. Not all grip tape is the same however. Each brand's products perform differently, so you may want to experiment with different brands to get a feel for what you prefer.

Many musicians, painters and designers have explored their potentials through skateboarding. When you skate, your inner talents come out in many ways. Painters paint their decks with artistic sceneries and musicians sing while they are deeply involved in cruising through the smooth roads. People with graphic designing and photography passion bring out their skills by taking an incredible picture while skateboarding and edit them beautifully. Skateboarding no doubt polishes your skills!
Their fan base loves them for pushing goofy but fun looking skating that in reality is heavier and rawer than most will realize, and their board graphics and t-shirts feature art from their riders in striking colorways. Their product immediately stands out among the bunch at any shop it’s stocked. These guys are doing things exactly their way, and it’s sticking.

It is a mini-cruiser, which is known for its strength as well as its ability to offer real value for the money you spent. This skateboard can also be expected to deliver an impressive performance – thanks to the Abec 7 skatro bearings used in it. There are also 59-mm urethane wheels and the 3-inch GOLD aluminum trucks that can help smoothen each ride.
Skateboarding, in one form or another, has been around since the late 1950’s when the first brave pioneer first attached roller skate wheels to a piece of wood. As skateboarding progressed to mimic surfing, skateboards evolved with the style of riding. Skateboards grew and changed shapes as riders experimented with everything from plastic to fiberglass to aluminum constructions - all in an effort to push what was possible. Like most sports or art forms, progression is at the heart of skateboard innovation.
Skateboarders like things that aren't skateboarding, too, you know. Camping, fishing, motorcycles… Uh, skateboarding? Crap. Whatever. Pro skater Adrian Lopez founded Loser machine and the Dark Seas Division as a way to explore other facets of the culture through cool clothing. Loser Machine is a complete collection that goes far beyond that typical tees, jeans, and hats formula that many skate apparel brands rely on—leather motorcycle gloves, denim vests, and floral print button-downs are all evidence that this is a well-conceived project from a skater with good taste.
With Board Blazers LED Cheap Skateboards, you can quickly customize your ride.  There’s no need for any bulky battery pack or wires.  You just need to place the lights under the trucks to do the tricks.  Now, you can cruise safely with style.  It is self-adhesive and every light comes with small, long-lasting, and easily replaceable lithium batteries.  The on/off activation is controlled manually. It includes a set of 4 lights with the matching color.  It is best for all types skateboards, longboards, and scooters. It is the perfect gift for anyone.  It is the most trusted product with a rating of 4.5 on Amazon.
Skateboarder owned and operated is Magenta's mantra. “No middle-man or business-person involved,” it says on the brand's site, so you know what you're getting from this French brand is pure, uncut skate to the core. All of the art direction and graphics are done by co-founder and team rider Soy Panday, who has developed a unique artistic perspective for Magenta. You'll likely to see numerous skaters kicking around on Magenta boards in NYC these days, and with a strong offering of T-shirts, coaches jackets, caps, and a funny boxer short collab with Lousy Livin, there is plenty to appreciate.
Founded in 1994, and going strong ever since, Globe is one of the top quality skateboard brands in the world. They are a global producer and distributor of skateboards and skateboarding gear; selling products in over 100 countries. This is the best brand of skateboard. They are known for their purpose-built apparel, skateboard decks, trucks, wheels, etc, footwear and major surfing and skateboarding events (just to name a few of their ventures). Due to their presence in the boarding industry, Globe has gradually become one of the best skateboard brands in the market.
There followed a video release containing a remix of archive footage of Glaswegian born ex Blueprint pro skater Colin Kennedy who was awarded a guest board by The National Skate Co in 2015 that referenced an earlier Irn Bru graphic of Kennedy’s released in 1996 during his time on Panic Skateboards. Additionally, The National Skate Co released another limited edition homage series of product to celebrate the classic 1997 UK video Playing Fields with the blessing of those involved in making the video originally.
Grip tape adds additional assurance for a rider's feet. It is made from a sheet of colored paper or fabric with adhesive on one side and a fine, sand paper surface on the other. Applied to the top surface of a skateboard, grip tape gives a person's feet an improved grip while maintaining stability for performing tricks. Skateboard trucks connect both the wheels and ball bearings to the deck and are directly attached to the deck themselves. They are usually constructed from aluminum alloy. The wheels are mounted to their axles via steel bearings. The wheels are made from polyurethane and available in a range of different shapes and sizes to suit most any skill level.
If you decide that you don’t want to spend the money for a pro-quality complete, then this is your best bet for a completely blank skateboard.  You’re just not going to find anything else with similar quality anywhere near this price range.  This blank skateboard is an even 8″ with 9 layers of plywood in the deck.  This makes it ideal for any beginner especially adults or children with large feet.  A great option for someone on a budget or if you want to try a no-frills quality skateboard setup, before deciding if you want to invest further on a pro-style skateboard.
Of course, 2015 also stands for a line of new companies that drew a lot of attention on them and we are talking about some serious game-changers here. There was Sour Skateboards, who had an incredible launch (or are we talking of a comeback?) as well as Isle Skateboards (did you hear about the Bright European Skateboarding Awards 2016?), Krooked and many more. We are hyped for this year and can’t wait to explore whatever there is to come with all of you guys! We would love to know your opinion. Which are your favorite deck brands. Feel free to comment below.

In 2003 Go Skateboarding Day was founded in southern California by the International Association of Skateboard Companies[53] to promote skateboarding throughout the world. It is celebrated annually on June 21 "to define skateboarding as the rebellious, creative celebration of independence it continues to be."[54][55][56][57][58] According to market research firm American Sports Data the number of skateboarders worldwide increased by more than 60 percent between 1999 and 2002—from 7.8 million to 12.5 million.[59]
When you’re searching for one of the best decks on the market, it’s important to not go overboard. You don’t need one that is made from the rarest wood or that has the most unique design. The best boards may be the ones that balance cost, design, and quality. After all, with healthy use, you’ll eventually have to replace your deck anyway. You want the one that will give you the most functionality and enjoyment while you use it.

However, the diversity of Santa Cruz skateboard’s stake in the skateboard business meant that they easily survived the mid-90’s slump in popularity and returned with an newly invigorated team and powered on with video after video from the mid-90’s to the present day. Similarly to Powell-Peralta, Santa Cruz are also notable for their Veteran Division (documented in their 2007 release ‘V Day‘) celebrating pro riders such as Keith Meek, Tom Knox and Eric Dressen from earlier eras of Santa Cruz’s existence. Santa Cruz Skateboards current line of product boasts many re-released classic boards from earlier eras of the brand and are as popular, if not more so, than they were originally, thanks to an explosion in the nostalgia and collector’s markets within skateboarding.
Mark Gonzalez created bLind Skateboards in 1989, and shortly after initiated a pro team for his skateboard brand. The bLind brand is known for higher durability due to their innovative features. The boards released by bLind are developed and marketed for hardcore skaters and top other skateboarding brands. We like that bLind goes all out providing one of the strongest boards out there, and without sacrificing the flex needed for tricks. They also do it all with a sick style and an innovative business plan that has made them one of the top skateboard brands.
In 1975 skateboarding had risen back in popularity enough to have one of the largest skateboarding competitions since the 1960s, the Del Mar National Championships, which is said to have had up to 500 competitors. The competition lasted two days and was sponsored by Bahne Skateboards & Cadillac Wheels. While the main event was won by freestyle spinning skate legend Russ Howell,[30][31] a local skate team from Santa Monica, California, the Zephyr team, ushered in a new era of surfer style skateboarding during the competition that would have a lasting impact on skateboarding's history. With a team of 12, including skating legends such as Jay Adams, Tony Alva, Peggy Oki & Stacy Peralta, they brought a new progressive style of skateboarding to the event, based on the style of Hawaiian surfers Larry Bertlemann, Buttons Kaluhiokalani and Mark Liddell.[32] Craig Stecyk, a photo journalist for Skateboarder Magazine, wrote about and photographed the team, along with Glen E. Friedman, and shortly afterwards ran a series on the team called the Dogtown articles, which eventually immortalized the Zephyr skateboard team. The team became known as the Z-Boys and would go on to become one of the most influential teams in skateboarding's history.[27][33][34]
Ever notice small vertical or horizontal cracks through your grip tape or by the hardware of your trucks?  These are called stress or pressure cracks and are basically mini fractures of your skateboard deck that typically are seen in the areas of the deck that withstand the greatest impact (around the trucks).  A few pressure cracks is generally no big deal and you won’t even notice them while skating, but they can compound and grow larger and make your deck lose “pop” and increase the chance of snapping.  To avoid pressure cracks, you cant use riser pads underneath your trucks to reduce the level of impact your deck takes.  You should also avoid over tightening your hardware and storing your skateboard in a very humid place as both of these practices can also make your board weaker and more susceptible to pressure cracks.
The hoopla team helped to publicize just how well women can skate, and helped to create an onramp to skating's main road. Young girls and women have taken this opportunity so seriously, that they are no longer content to be part of a separate but equal skate community. In this era of the "Me Too" movement, shattered glass ceilings, and equality of pay, women have chosen to participate on each major company’s skateboard team, instead of supporting brands like hoopla, created just for women.
The nose and tail of a standard skateboard curve upward slightly to make tricks easier to perform. On most decks, the nose and tail are shaped slightly different. The nose is usually wider, longer and steeper than the tail which aids in nose-based (nollie) tricks, and also helps you differentiate the nose from the tail. Some shaped boards have very different nose and tail dimensions, and some old school boards lack noses all together.

Silver has edged it's way onto the scene offering nice, quality skateboard trucks, with plenty of little extras to make their trucks stand out from the rest. With things like inverted kingpins and axle caps, Silver trucks are pushing their motto, "Strength with Style." Silver trucks do look nice! Silver also sports a great team, with guys like Sheckler, Dyrdek, Rodriquez and more.
The Rimable Complete 22″ Skateboard is the most compact street board that are ready-to-use.  It is best for exercise and fun, and very portable.  There are five colors that you can choose from Black, Blue, White, Purple, and Green.  It has high-quality construction, with a high-density plastic deck.  It features extremely smooth 59mm wheels along with ABEC7 bearings and solid aluminum trucks.  It measures 22″ long and 6″ wide and weighs 4 pounds.  It has the best rating of 4.3 on Amazon.
Without good grip tape, skaters have a tough time staying on top of their board. The main complaints about poor grip tape tend to be that it was never very grippy or lost its grip really quickly. Once again, we recommend trusting in name brands with years of experience supporting skateboarders. Unfortunately, if you are buying a pre-made complete skateboard, you probably won't have access to the brand name of the grip. 
A skateboard is a special type of sports equipment crafted from a long piece of maple wood with a polyurethane coating for increased durability and easy sliding while in motion. The wood is attached to four wheels and propelled forward by either the push of a rider's foot or by the gravitational forces acting upon them in a given circumstance, which means that a rider can simply stand on the board's surface and ride it downhill without using their feet at all. Skateboards are available as either long boards or short boards. Long boards are usually between thirty-five and sixty inches long and are ideal for cruising purposes and downhill racing. They are typically more expensive than short boards, which are around thirty inches long and are designed for getting air and performing stunts or tricks.
The Atom has also improved its position from 4th to 3rd in 2018. You can trust these Longboards. They are continuously improving their product quality and increasing communication with general and potential customers. Correspondingly, they provide an opportunity for customers to select from a wide range of style, color, design and price to the customers. If the improving rate becomes constant, it will quickly switch to the upper position immediately.
Alex Olson’s Bianca Chandôn has quickly blurred and crossed back and forth between the line that currently divides high fashion and skateboarding, pushing an androgynous aesthetic inspired by looks found in Tom Bianchi’s Polaroid book Fire Island Pines, which nobody was ready for. Olson has turned what started off as an idea for a small board brand into a hype machine that has become a hit across the world.
Tensor trucks are the most highly engineered skateboard trucks on the market. Tensor trucks are like the Cadillac of trucks and have the brilliance of skateboarding legend / engineer Rodney Mullen as a driving force. Tensor trucks come in both standard and low designs, and should work excellently in most skateboarding situations. Sort of a perfect all-round well-built skateboarding truck.
It’s a beautifully designed affordable skateboard that provides an optimum ride for both amateurs and pro riders. Its high-rebound, hand-cast polyurethane wheels are built to deliver best roll and grip during an action. Its 7.625 inches wide and 31.625 inches long top board offers ample grip and stable ride for the beginners who are still learning to stand while riding without any fear of slipping off the board. Its colorful screen-printed bottom lets you ride in style. It is built to meet demanding specifications.

The magazine only lasted four issues, but resumed publication as Skateboarder in 1975.[16][17][18] The first broadcast of an actual skateboarding competition was the 1965 National Skateboarding Championships, which were held in Anaheim, California and aired on ABC’s “Wide World of Sports.[19][20] Because skateboarding was a new sport during this time, there were only two original disciplines during competitions: flatland freestyle and slalom downhill racing.[6]
The Quest can be considered as the best improving Longboard brand because in 2014 it was in the 4th position, whereas in 2018 it is in 2nd place. This is a good improvement for a Longboard brand in these competitive days! Even though it is now in 2nd place, it has a little gap with Sector 9. They mainly focused on the customer’s needs by collecting client opinions. They have been improving the size, quality, performance, speed, design, and color of their longboards.

Choosing a good skateboard can be tricky, if you're a beginner in the sport. There's a lot that you have to take into account, in addition to the cost. You have to also consider the complete board, the deck, the trucks, and the wheels, whether you're buying a ready-made skateboard or are putting together your own. Once you understand what makes a good skateboard, you'll be hitting up the skate parks in no time.


Mark Gonzalez created bLind Skateboards in 1989, and shortly after initiated a pro team for his skateboard brand. The bLind brand is known for higher durability due to their innovative features. The boards released by bLind are developed and marketed for hardcore skaters and top other skateboarding brands. We like that bLind goes all out providing one of the strongest boards out there, and without sacrificing the flex needed for tricks. They also do it all with a sick style and an innovative business plan that has made them one of the top skateboard brands.
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